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The earliest archaeological signs of permanent habitation in the Paris area date from around 4200 BC. The Romans conquered the Paris in 52 BC building permanent settlements on the Left Bank, Sainte Geneviève Hill and the Île de la Cité. The Roman town was called Lutèce. It prospered acquiring a forum, palaces, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. The collapse of the Roman empire sent the city into a period of decline. By 400 it was almost abandoned becoming a garrison town entrenched into the fortified central island. The city reclaimed its original name of "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation. The Frankish king Clovis I established Paris as his capital in 508. Paris lost its position as seat of the French realm during occupation of the Burgundians during the Hundred Years' War, but regained its title when Charles VII of France reclaimed it in 1436. King François I returned France's crown residences to Paris in 1528. King Louis XIV moved the royal court permanently to Versailles in 1682. Paris was the center for the French Revolution, with the Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 and the overthrow of the monarchy in September 1792. Paris was occupied by Russian Cossack and Kalmyk cavalry units after Napoleon's defeat on March 31, 1814. The return of the monarchy under Louis XVIII (1814-1824) and Charles X, ended with the July Revolution uprising of 1830. The constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe ended with the 1848 "February Revolution" that led to the creation of the Second Republic. The Industrial Revolution created a network of railways that brought an unprecedented flow of migrants to the Paris from the 1840's. The city's largest transformation came with the 1852 Second Empire under Napoleon III; the préfet Haussmann leveled entire districts of Paris' narrow, winding medieval streets to create the network of wide avenues and neo-classical façades that still make much of modern Paris. The transformation created wide boulevards to beautify and sanitize the capital and to facilitate the effectiveness of troops and artillery against any further uprisings. The Second Empire ended in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) and Paris surrendered on the January 28, 1871. France's 19th century Universal Expositions made Paris an increasingly important center of technology, trade and tourism. The 1889 Universal Exposition created the Eiffel Tower which was the world's tallest building until 1930. Paris remains a beautiful city with a fairly consistent architectural style disrupted mainly by la Defence.
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