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Jordan's roots can be traced to the Kingdom of Petra, which was founded by the Nabataeans. During its height the Nabataean Kingdom controlled regional trade routes in a large area southwest of the fertile crescent. Petra enjoyed independence, prosperity and wealth until it was absorbed by the Roman Empire around 100. Other smaller ancient kingdoms in Jordan included the Kingdom of Edom, the Kingdom of Ammon, the Kingdom of Moab, the Kingdom of Judah, and the Hasmonean Kingdom of the Maccabees. During the Greco-Roman period of influence, a number of semi-independent city-states also developed in Jordan including: Jerash, Amman, Abila, Capitolias, Umm Qays, and Irbid. Jordan became part of the Arabic Islamic Empire including Rashidun Empire, Umayyad Empire and Abbasid Empire. After the decline of the Abbasid, Jordan was ruled by the Mongols, the Crusaders, the Ayyubids and the Mamluks until it became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1516. With the break-up of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations chose to redraw the borders in the Middle East. The ensuing decisions created the French Mandate of Syria and British Mandate of Palestine. More than 76% of the British Mandate of Palestine was east of the Jordan river and was known as "Transjordan". The country was called "Transjordan", and was under British supervision until after World War II. In 1946, the British requested that the United Nations approve an end to British Mandate rule in Transjordan. Following this approval, the Transjordanian Parliament proclaimed King Abdullah as the first ruler of the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. Abdullah changed the country's name to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in April 1949.
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