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According to the traditional view, around the 11th century BC, the first of a series of Israelite kingdoms and states established rule over the region. Between the time of the Israelite kingdoms and the 7th century Muslim conquests, the Land of Israel fell under Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Sassanian, and Byzantine rule. Jewish presence in the region dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132. In 628/9, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius conducted a massacre and expulsion of the Jews. The Land of Israel was taken from the Byzantine Empire around 636 during by Muslim conquests. Control of the region transferred between the Umayyads, Abbasids, and Crusaders over the next six centuries, before falling in the hands of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1260. In 1516, the Land of Israel became a part of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled the region until the 20th century. The first large wave of modern immigration began in 1881, as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe. The second migration (1904–1914), began after the Kishinev pogrom. Some 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine. Both the first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews, but the second migration included socialist pioneers who established the kibbutz movement. In 1922, the League of Nations granted the United Kingdom a mandate over Palestine under terms similar to the Balfour Declaration. The population of the area at this time was predominantly Muslim Arab, while the largest urban area in the region, Jerusalem, was predominantly Jewish. The third (1919–1923) and fourth (1924–1929) migrations brought 100,000 Jews to Palestine. From 1921 the British subjected Jewish immigration to quotas. The rise of Nazism in the 1930s led to the fifth migration, with an influx of a quarter of a million Jews. This caused the Arab revolt of 1936–1939 and led the British to cap immigration with the White Paper of 1939. With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah. Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine. By the end of World War II, Jews accounted for 33% of the population of Palestine. After 1945 the United Kingdom became embroiled in an increasingly violent conflict with the Jews. In 1947, the British government withdrew from commitment to the Mandate of Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Arabs and Jews. The United Nations approved the UN Partition Plan on November 29, 1947, dividing the country into two states, one Arab and one Jewish. Jerusalem was to be designated an international city administered by the UN. The Jewish community accepted the plan, but the Arab League rejected it. On December 1, 1947 the Arab Higher Committee proclaimed a three-day strike, and Arab bands began attacking Jewish targets. Civil war began. The Palestinian-Arab economy collapsed and 250,000 Palestinian-Arabs fled or were expelled. On May 14, 1948, the day before the end of the British Mandate, the Jewish Agency proclaimed independence. The following day the armies of five Arab countries Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq attacked Israel, launching the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Morocco, Sudan, Yemen and Saudi Arabia sent troops to assist the invaders. Jordan annexed what became known as the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on May 11, 1949. During the conflict about 80% of the Arab population, were expelled or fled the country. In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics. These years were marked by mass immigration of Holocaust survivors and an influx of Jews some of whom were persecuted in Arab lands. During the 1950s Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian Fedayeen, mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip.
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