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The city is named after the Moskva River. The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147. Nine years later, in 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgoruki of Rostov ordered the construction of a wooden wall to surround the city. The Mongols sacked and burned the city in 1237–1238. Moscow recovered and became the capital of the independent Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327. Moscow developed into a stable and prosperous principality, known as Grand Duchy of Moscow. Under Ivan I the city replaced Tver as a political center of Vladimir-Suzdal and became the collector of taxes for the Mongol-Tatar rulers. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo. Two years later Moscow was sacked by khan Tokhtamysh. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, and Moscow to became the center of power in Russia. Under Ivan III the city became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of present-day Russia. In 1609, the Swedish army led by Count Jacob De la Gardie and Evert Horn started their march from Veliky Novgorod toward Moscow to help Tsar Vasili Shuiski suppress a rebellion against the Tsar. They left early in 1611, following which the Polish-Lithuanian army invaded. During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618) hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski entered Moscow after defeating the Russians in the Battle of Klushino. The city ceased to be Russia’s capital in 1712, after the founding of Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812, the Muscovites burned the city and evacuated, as Napoleon’s forces were approaching. Napoleon’s army, plagued by hunger, cold and poor supply lines, was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, on March 12, 1918, Moscow became the capital of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the Soviet Union less than five years later. During World War II, after the German invasion of the USSR, the Soviet State Defense Committee and the General Staff of the Red Army was located in Moscow. In November 1941 the German Army Group Center was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the Battle of Moscow. Despite the siege and the bombings, the construction of Moscow's metro system, continued through the war and by the end of the war several new metro lines were opened. When the USSR was dissolved Moscow continued to be the capital of Russia.
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